DTOcean was a European collaborative project funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Development. DTOcean aimed at accelerating the industrial development of ocean energy power generation knowledge, and providing design tools for deploying the first generation of wave and tidal energy converter arrays.

This page summarises the partners, project structure, deliverables, and publications from the original DTOcean project.


DTOcean gathered together 18 partners from 11 countries (Ireland, Spain, United Kingdom, Germany, Portugal, France, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium and United States of America) under the coordination of the University of Edinburgh. Each partner was actively engaged in the development of ocean energy arrays. A representation from a broad range of Member States consolidated the expertise from each partner to provide a solid base for development. The partners offered a balanced consortium with expertise in all of the relevant areas necessary for the development of design tools for ocean energy arrays.



The global perimeter of the project defining the different scenarios for array development in order to give generic scope for the application of the design tools as well as to identify relevant deployment parameters. Different sets of scenarios for wave and tide were considered, using two selected technologies in each case, with the inclusion of parameters such as wave characteristics, including extreme conditions, geophysical, etc. These should reflect the potential range of deployment and environmental conditions at different European sites.

Array Layout

The main goal was to take the previously defined scenarios forward to the succeeding work packages through resource assessment and definition of the array layouts and the parameters in play for the array optimization. It focused on the hydrodynamic interaction between the individual devices in the array, how this affects the resource, power performance, cost uncertainties and environmental impact.

Electrical System Architecture

The main goal was to develop a methodology that will propose technically and economically optimal configurations for the offshore electrical network.

Moorings & Foundations

The main goal was to develop models to inform about mooring networks and foundation requirements that allowed reducing uncertainties associated with the performance, reliability, and environmental impact of permanent mooring and anchorage systems for MEC arrays.

Lifecycle Logistics

The ultimate goal was to provide toolbox with a model to design optimal logistic solutions during manufacturing, assembly, installation, O&M and decommissioning of ocean energy arrays.

System Control & Operation

The main goal was to identify, adapt and develop methods to optimize operational aspects of arrays of wave and tidal devices. These included mainly O&M, control and condition monitoring of arrays. The methods and tools enable project developers to optimize the performance at array level with regard to energy yield, environmental impact and O&M cost. The experience and methodologies from operating offshore wind farms as well as oil and gas infrastructure were utilized input into this project.

Design Tool Development & Operation

The main goal was the development of a multi-objective suite of tools that provides quantitative criteria for the design and analysis of ocean energy arrays. This global package integrates the models and algorithms developed within the individual work packages into a common interface.

Knowledge Management, Dissemination & Exploitation

Dissemination was a strong driver of DTOcean, since the design tools created for ocean energy arrays are meant to be widely used by the industrial sector. Early inputs from all other work packages get feed-back on intermediate results by the community and much attention were paid to training actions towards the end of the project to ensure the proper exploitation of the tools produced.


DTOcean - Version 1.0

Public deliverables


  • Teillant, B., Chainho, P., Raventos, A., Nava V. & Jeffrey, H. (2014) A methodology for the development of a numerical tool for the lifecycle logistics of ocean energy arrays. International Conference on Ocean Energy 2014, Halifax, Canada, 04/11/2014 - 06/11/2014
    > Access to the full article
  • Jeffrey, H. (2014) Optimal Design Tools for Ocean Arrays (DTOcean). International Conference on Ocean Energy 2014, Halifax, Canada, 04/11/2014 - 06/11/2014
    > Access to the full presentation
  • Karimirad, M., Koushan, K., Weller, S., Hardwick, J. & Johanning, L. (2014) Applicability of offshore mooring and foundation technologies for marine renewable energy (MRE) device arrays. International Conference on Renewable Energies Offshore 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, 24/11/2014 - 26/11/2014
    > Access to the full article
  • Weller, S. D., Thies, P. R., Gordelier, T. & Johanning, L. (2015) Reducing Reliability Uncertainties for Marine Renewable Energy. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 3, 1349-1361
    > Access to the full article
  • Topper, M., Nava, V. & Ruiz-Minguela, P. (2015) DTOcean User Experience. All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, United-Kingdom, 06/05/2015 - 07/05/2015
    > Access to the full presentation
  • Collin, A. J., Nambiar, A. J., Kiprakis, A. E., Rea, J. & Whitby B. (2015) Network Design Tool for the Optimal Design of Offshore Ocean Energy Array Networks. IEEE Powertech 2015, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 29/06/2015 - 02/07/2015
  • Nambiar, A. J., Collin, A. J., Karatzounis, S., Rea, J., Whitby, B. & Kiprakis, A. E. (2015) Optimising Network Design Options for Marine Energy Converter Farms. European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference 2015, Nantes, France, 06/09/2015 - 11/09/2015
  • Mercade Ruiz, P., Ferri, F. & Kofoed, J. P. (2015) Sensitivity analysis of WEC array layout parameters effect on the power performance. European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference 2015, Nantes, France, 06/09/2015 - 11/09/2015
  • Karimirad, K. & Koushan K. (2016) WindWEC: Combining Wind and Wave Energy Inspired by Hywind and Wavestar. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications 2016, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 20/11/2016 - 23/11/2016
    > Access to the full article
  • Mercade Ruiz, P., Ferri, F. & Kofoed, J. P. (2016) A frequency-depth explicit interaction theory formulation. 26th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Rhodes, Greece, 26/06/2016 - 02/07/2016
  • Duarte, R., Charbonier, K., Lejart, M., Monbet, P. Filipot, J.-P. (2018) Development of an Environmental Impact Assessment Module (EIAM) in the DTOcean project. International Conference on Ocean Energy, Cherbourg, France, 12/06/2018 - 14/06/2018
    > Access the full article
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